Types of textile fibers
Fibers are the basic elements of textiles. Generally speaking, materials with diameters ranging from several micronsto tens of microns and with lengths being many times of their thickness can be considered to be fibers. Among them,
those longer than tens of millimetres with sufficient strength and flexibility can be classified as textile fibers, which can be used to produce yarns, cords or fabrics.
Zelin factory produce sweater fancy yarn and knitting yarn, we usually use all kinds of textiles fibers.
TYPES OF TEXTILE FIBERS
There are many types of textile fibers. However all may be classified as either natural fibers or man-made fibers.
Natural fibers include plant or vegetable fibers, animal fibers and mineral fibers.In terms of popularity, cotton is the most commonly used plant fiber, followed by linen (flax) and ramie. Flax fibers are commonly used but since the fiber
length of flax is fairly short (25~40 mm) , flax fibers have traditionally been blended with cotton or polyester. Ramie, the so-called "China grass", is a durable bast fiber with a silky lustre. It is extremely absorbent but the fabrics made from it crease and wrinkle easily, so ramie is often blended with synthetic fibers.Animal fibers either come from the animal's hair, for example, wool, cashmere, mohair, camel hair and rabbit hair, etc.,or from the animal gland secretion, such as mulberry silk and tussah.The most commonly known natural mineral fiber is asbestos, which is an inorganic fiber with very good flame resistance but is also dangerous to health and therefore it is not used now.
Man-made fibers can be classified as either organic or inorganic fibers.The former can be sub-classified into two types: one type includes those made by transformation of natural polymers to produce regenerated fibers as they are
sometimescalled ,and the other type is made from synthetic polymers to produce synthetic filaments or fibers.
Commonly used regenerated fibers are Cupro fibers (CUP, cellulose fibers obtained by the cuprammonium process) and Viscose ( CV, cellulose fibers obtained by the viscose process Both Cupro and Viscose can be called rayon). Acetate ( CA, cellulose acetate fibers in which less than 92%,but at least 74% ，Of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated.) and triacetate ( CTA,cellulose acetate fibers in which at least 92% of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated.) are other types of regenerated fibers Lyocell (CLY) , Modal (CMD) and Tencel are now popular regenerated cellulose fibers, which were developed to meet the demand for environmental considerations in their production.
Nowadays, regenerated protein fibers are also becoming popular. Among these are soybean fibers, milk fibers and Chitosan fibers. Regenerated protein fibers are particularly suited for medical applications.
Synthetic fibers used in textiles are generally made from coal, petroleum or natural gas , from which the monomers are polymerized through different chemical reactions to become high molecular polymers with relatively simple chemical structures,which can be melted or dissolved in suitable solvents. Commonly used synthetic fibers are polyester ( PES ) ,polyamide (PA) or Nylon, polyethylene (PE),acrylic (PAN), modacrylic (MAC) , Polypropylene (PP) and Polyurethane (PU).The aromatic polyesterssuch as polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polybutylene terephthalate(PBT)are also becoming popular.
In addition, many synthetic fibers with special properties have been developed ,of which Nomex Kevlar and Spectra fibers are well known Both Nomex and Kevlar are the registered brand names of the Dupont Company. Nomex is a meta-aramid fiber with an excellent flame retardant property, and Kevlar can be used to make bullet-proof vests because of its extraordinary strength. Spectra fiber is made from polyethylene with ultra-high molecular weight, and is considered to be one of the strongest and lightest fibers in the world. It is particularly suited for armour, aerospace and high-performance sports goods.
Research is still going on and the research on nano fibers is one of the hottest topics in this field.Commonly used inorganic man-made fibers are carbon fibers, ceramic fibers, glass fibers and metal fibers. They are mostly usedfor some special purposes in order to perform some special functions.